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This article intends to identify and describe briefly all the French translations : two of the Synonyma and a French version of the Monita (a centon of the Synonyma) as well as a … For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. He was canonized as a saint in 1598 CE, and his feast day is 4 April. Isidore acknowledges Pliny, but not his other principal sources, namely Cassiodorus, Servius and Solinus. Isidore was encouraged to write the … [53] Rudolph Beer produced a facsimile edition of the Toledo manuscript of the Etymologies in 1909. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. This was deemed heretical by the Catholic church. Isidore, who had been appointed Bishop of Seville in 600, worked on the Etymologies from the second decade of the 7th century, and it was nearly complete by his death. [43], Through the Middle Ages Etymologiae was the textbook most in use, regarded so highly as a repository of classical learning that, in a great measure, it superseded the use of the individual works of the classics themselves, full texts of which were no longer copied and thus were lost. [5] Bishop Braulio, to whom Isidore dedicated it and sent it for correction, divided it into its twenty books. Isidore died in 636 CE, leaving his Etymologiae unfinished. "[28] There are waters that cure eye injuries, or make voices melodious, or cause madness, or cure infertility. Isidore's Etymologies, published in 20 books after his death, was an encyclopedia of all human knowledge, glossed with his own derivations of the technical terms relevant to the topic in hand. More recently Ernst Robert Curtius in his study of European Latin literature noted that the Etymologiae “served the entire Middle Ages as a basic book” (23). Written in simple Latin, it was all a man needed in order to have access to everything he wanted to know about the world but never dared to ask, from the 28 types of common noun to the names of women's outer garments. [39], Book XVIII covers the terms of war, games and jurisprudence. Saint Isidore of Seville (c.560-636) was Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and has the reputation of being one of the great scholars of the early Middle Ages. The Etymologiae was an extremely important book for the transmission of knowledge from the ancient world in medieval Europe. Isidore was very well-read, both in Christian and pagan authors, and he drew on both freely for material in the Etymologiae. As the name suggests, etymologies play a pivotal role in Isidore’s encyclopedia; there are thousands of entries on a whole range of subjects, with etymologies provided for most of them. [2][3], Etymologiae presents in abbreviated form much of that part of the learning of antiquity that Christians thought worth preserving. Isidore compiled the work between c.615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject matter. [22], Book IX covers languages, peoples, kingdoms, cities and titles. Isidore helped to unify the kingdom through Christianity and education, eradicating the Arian heresy which had been widespread, and led National Councils at Toledo and Seville. He mentions as prolific authors the pagan Varro and the Christians Origen and Augustine. Garwood notes, "St Augustine's stance on the shape of the earth [spherical] was supported, albeit vaguely, by the most popular encyclopedist of the era, St Isidore of Seville". The Etymologiae thrived in the cultural program of the Carolingians in the 8th and 9th centuries CE. In the amphitheatre, Isidore covers those who fight with nets, nooses and other weapons. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. ETYMOLOGIARVM SIVE ORIGINVM LIBRI XX Liber I: Liber II: Liber III: Liber IV: Liber V; Liber VI: Liber VII: Liber VIII: Liber IX Isidore's Latin style in the "Etymologiae" and elsewhere, though simple and lucid, cannot be said to be classical, affected as it was by local Visigothic traditions. Leander also made friends with the Visigothic king's sons, Hermenigild and Reccared. [16] He attributes geometry to Ancient Egypt, arguing that because the River Nile flooded and covered the land with mud, geometry was needed to mark out people's land "with lines and measures". No ‘Leiden’ chapter-title names the Etymologies, and only the rather short miscellaneous ch. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Books I to III are devoted to the ‘seven liberal arts’ of classical education: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic (called the Trivium), and mathematics, geometry, music, and astronomy (called the Quadrivium). Pope John Paul II (in office 1978-2005 CE) even nominated Isidore as the patron saint of the internet because he attempted to record everything worth knowing in his encyclopedia. Through Isidore's condensed paraphrase a third-hand memory of Roman law passed to the Early Middle Ages. [12], Book II completes the mediaeval Trivium with coverage of rhetoric and dialectic. It was, indeed, a tempting choice. Leander became Bishop of Seville c. 580 CE and was a personal friend of Pope Gregory I, even before his papal coronation. He explains eclipses of the sun as the moon coming between the earth and the sun and eclipses of the moon as happening when it runs into the shadow of the earth. Isidore compiled the work between c.615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject matter. His word derivations are not based on principles of historical linguistics but follow their own logic... Isidore is the master of bricolage... His reductions and compilations did indeed transmit ancient learning, but Isidore, who often relied on scholia and earlier compilations, is often simplistic scientifically and philosophically, especially compared to .. figures such as Ambrose and Augustine."[43]. Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of … The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville This work is the first complete English translation of the Latin Etymologies of Isidore, bishop of Seville (c. 560–636). Etymologies, often very far-fetched, form the subject of just one of the encyclopedia's twenty books (Book X), but perceived linguistic similarities permeate the work. The famous scholar Bede (c. 673-735 CE) was very familiar with the work. The Etymologies summarized and organized a wealth of knowledge from hundreds of classical sources; three of its books are derived largely from Pliny the Elder's Natural History. We can speak of six … ISIDORE OF SEVILLE (d. 636), Etymologiae, Books I-XI i (of XX) with the correspondence between Isidore and Braulio, in Latin, DECORATED AND ILLUSTRATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM [ff.5-145 10th century, north-eastern France or southern Netherlands; ff.1-4 12th century, St Martin's, Tournai] 310 x 220mm. He discusses the purpose of law, legal cases, witnesses, offences and penalties. The earliest is held at the St. Gall Abbey library, Switzerland,[44] in the Codex Sangallensis: it is a 9th-century copy of books XI to XX. [51], In 1472 at Augsburg, Etymologiae became one of the first books to be printed, quickly followed by ten more editions by 1500. Other pagan Roman figures such as Cicero (106-43 BCE) and Lucan (39-65 CE) are cited extensively throughout the encyclopedia, as are Christian authors, such as Jerome (c. 347-420 CE) and Augustine (354-430 CE). The Etymologies organizes knowledge, mainly drawn from the classics, into twenty books: In Book I, Isidore begins with a lengthy section on the first of three subjects in the mediaeval Trivium, considered at the time the core of essential knowledge, grammar. Book X on vocabulary is the only book in the encyclopedia organized alphabetically and while etymologies are discussed nearly throughout the encyclopedia, Book X is dedicated to them. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Isidore’s main source of authority was the Bible, which he quotes from almost 200 times in the Etymologiae. The book is a type of medieval encyclopedia and is a survey of important knowledge and … Isidore was encouraged to write the book by his friend Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa. The Etymologiae (Etymologies) is a Latin work by Isidore of Seville (l. c. 560 - 636 CE), compiled in the early 7th century CE and published in its final form shortly after his death. the Latin glosses in these manuscripts show a heavy debt to Isidore, but even the Old English ones can frequently be shown to originate not as translations of the text but, rather, as translations of original Latin glosses taken from the Etymologiae. The sky is called caelum as it has stars stamped on to it, like a decorated pot (caelatus). Cite This Work [41], Book XX completes Isidore's encyclopaedia, describing food and drink and vessels for these, storage and cooking vessels; furnishings including beds and chairs; vehicles, farm and garden tools and equipment for horses. Athletic games include running and jumping, throwing and wrestling. Nevertheless, Isidore moves freely from one source to another, whether pagan or Christian. In this respect, Isidore employs etymologizing as a means of understanding the world around him, thereby encouraging his readers to do the same. [1] Isidore became well known in his lifetime as a scholar. While these Latin words are indeed similar, this etymology is quite fanciful. On chronology, Isidore covers periods of time such as days, weeks, and months, solstices and equinoxes, seasons, special years such as Olympiads and Jubilees, generations and ages. [42], Isidore was widely influential throughout the Middle Ages, feeding directly into word lists and encyclopaedias by Papias, Huguccio, Bartholomaeus Anglicus and Vincent of Beauvais, as well as being used everywhere in the form of small snippets. Books XII, XIII and XIV are largely based on Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Solinus, whereas the lost Prata of Suetonius, which can be partly pieced together from what is quoted in Etymologiae, seems to have inspired the general plan of the work, as well as many of its details. License. Today, one internet connection serves precisely the same purpose...[4], Almost 1000 manuscript copies of Etymologiae have survived. Some of the material contained in the work might otherwise have been lost, had Isidore not undertaken the monumental task of writing his encyclopedia. A typical entry from Isidore’s Etymologiae on the origin of the Trojans: The Trojan nation was formerly named the Dardanian, from Dardanus. Its content is largely derived from older Roman and early Christian texts, some of which were compilations of older material still. Etymologies, often very far-fetched, form the subject of just one of the encyclopedia's twenty books (Book X), but perceived linguistic similarities permeate the work. Due to his fame and reverence, Dante (c. 1265-1321 CE) afforded Isidore a place within the circle of the sun in Paradise in his Divine Comedy, a realm reserved for those who had lit up the world with their intellect. The work contains whatever Isidore, an influential Christian bishop, thought worth keeping. His friend and colleague Braulio, who encouraged Isidore to write the Etymologiae, lists over a dozen major works published in his lifetime, as well as other minor works. [20], Book VII describes the basic scheme concerning God, angels and saints, in other words the hierarchies of heaven and earth, from patriarchs, prophets and apostles down the scale through people named in the gospels to martyrs, clergymen, monks and ordinary Christians. The Latin for buttocks is clunis as they are near the large intestine or colon (colum). Spain at this time was largely under the control of the Visigoths, a Germanic tribe who had settled there after generations of moving around Europe in search of a new homeland. He covers the letters of the alphabet, parts of speech, accents, punctuation and other marks, shorthand and abbreviations, writing in cipher and sign language, types of mistake and histories. Étymologies Isidore de Séville (saint, 0560?-0636) Titre principal : Etymologiae (latin) Langue : Latin Genre ou forme de l’œuvre : Œuvres textuelles Date : 063. It was one of the most popular compendia in medieval libraries. Isidore’s etymologies are sometimes accurate, other times less so, and occasionally they are outlandish. Isidore of Seville was born around 560 in Spain, under the unstable rule of the Visigoths after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. The Etymologies are thus "complacently derivative". Isidore's Etymologiae has much to commend it to the intermediate Latinist. The classical encyclopedists had already introduced alphabetic ordering of topics, and a literary rather than observational approach to knowledge: Isidore followed those traditions. [46], In the view of John T. Hamilton, writing in The Classical Tradition in 2010, "Our knowledge of ancient and early medieval thought owes an enormous amount to this encyclopedia, a reflective catalogue of received wisdom, which the authors of the only complete translation into English introduce as "arguably the most influential book, after the Bible, in the learned world of the Latin West for nearly a thousand years"[47] These days, of course, Isidore and his Etymologies are anything but household names...[d] but the Vatican has named Isidore the patron saint of the Internet, which is likely to make his work slightly better known. After him succeeded his son Ericthonius, and then his grandson Tros, from whom the Trojans were named. The Etymologiae ( Etymologies) is a Latin work by Isidore of Seville (l. c. 560 - 636 CE), compiled in the early 7th century CE and published in its final form shortly after his death. Isidore compiled the work between c. 615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject matter. [23], Book X is a word-list of nouns and adjectives, together with supposed etymologies for them. Etymologiae II: Rhetoric, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The electric ray (torpedo) is called that because it numbs (torpescere, like "torpid") anyone who touches it. (Etymologiae I.xxix.2). [14], Book III covers the mediaeval Quadrivium, the four subjects that supplemented the Trivium being mathematics, geometry, music, and astronomy. Isidore describes standards, trumpets, weapons including swords, spears, arrows, slings, battering rams, and armour including shields, breastplates and helmets. [8], Isidore's Latin, replete with nonstandard Vulgar Latin, stands at the cusp of Latin and the local Romance language of Hispania. Isidore was encouraged to write the book by his friend Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa. It was a direct influence on the voluminous encyclopedias and lexicons of the later Middle Ages, and Isidore was regarded as a high authority through this time. His older brother, Leander, the abbot of a Seville monastery, supervised Isidore's education, probably in the school attached to his monastery. Indeed, one’s insight into anything is clearer when its etymology is known. The Etymologiae is thus a patchwork of sources, often overlapping, sometimes cited, and other times not; often it was a second-hand reference, other times it was from his own memory. For instance, from Book X we learn that the word for master (Latin dominus) is a derivation of the word for the house (domus) of which he is in charge. [30] Barney notes that orbis "refers to the 'circle' of lands around the Mediterranean, and hence to the total known extent of land. Etymologiae presents in abbreviated form much of that part of the learning of antiquity that Christians thought worth preserving. Philosophy sits in the center surrounded... Life of Isidore of Seville, author of the. One thing we can be certain about Isidore is that he was an extremely prolific writer. Urine (urina) gets its name either from the fact that it can burn (urere) the skin or, Isidore hedges, that it is from the kidneys (renes). Encyclopédie fondée sur l'étymologie, divisée en 20 livres, rassemblant toutes les connaissances humaines, profanes et sacrées, antiques et chrétiennes, accessibles au VIIe s. Oeuvre posthume qui fut achevée et publiée par Braulion, disciple d'Isidore Etymologiae was the most used textbook throughout the Middle Ages. Atoms...are said to fly through the void of the entire world in unceasing motion and to be carried here and there like the finest dust motes that may be seen pouring in through the window in the sun’s rays. Etymologiae, XX.13.1. [53], The accounts of logic in Book II and of arithmetic in Book III are transferred almost word for word from. Because of the breadth of his learning, Isidore has often been called “the last scholar of the ancient world”. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. ISIDORI HISPALENSIS EPISCOPI ETYMOLOGIARUM SIVE ORIGINUM LIBER V DE LEGIBVS ET TEMPORIBVS. [26], Book XIII describes the physical world, atoms, classical elements, the sky, clouds, thunder and lightning, rainbows, winds, and waters including the sea, the Mediterranean, bays, tides, lakes, rivers and floods. As one of the foremost bishops of his day who also had friends among the inner circle of the Visigothic monarchy, Isidore likely exerted considerable influence, both religious and political. [4], Isidore's vast encyclopedia of ancient learning includes subjects from theology to furniture, and provided a rich source of classical lore and learning for medieval writers. [24], Book XI covers human beings, portents and transformations. Isidore distinguishes natural, civil, international, military and public law among others. Isidore of Seville's Etymologies, volume 2. (Etymologiae XIII.ii.1). Outstanding among Isidore’s extraordinary literary production was his Etymologiae (Etymologies), which, in 20 sections, compiled for posterity much that he had extracted from works of previous encyclopaedists, specialists, and various Latin writers; the etymological part (Book X) became a great mine for later glossographers. Du latin Isidorus, nom d’un saint chrétien d’origine ibérique. [52] Juan de Grial produced the first scholarly edition in Madrid in 1599. [1] Moyses gentis Hebraicae primus omnium divinas leges sacris litteris explicavit. It was cited by Dante Alighieri, who placed Isidore in his Paradiso, quoted by Geoffrey Chaucer, and mentioned by the poets Boccaccio, Petrarch and John Gower. Leech, Laurence. On dialectic, he discusses philosophy, syllogisms, and definitions. Isidore mostly does not cite these sources, even when quoting from them at length. Femina, meaning woman, comes from femora/femina meaning thighs, as this part of the body shows she is not a man. Books [43] His influence also pertained to early medieval riddle collections such as the Bern Riddles or the Aenigmata of Aldhelm. The bulk of material for the Etymologiae, however, is taken from other encyclopedists and compilers: Pliny the Elder (c. 23-79 CE), Solinus (c. mid-3rd century CE), Servius (late 4th century CE - early 5th century CE) and Cassiodorus (c. 485 - c. 585 CE). Caelius Aurelianus contributes generously to the part of book IV dealing with medicine. Hamilton continues: "and the heading of the Wikipedia entry ", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Diagrammatic T-O map. Games with boards and dice are described. The Etymologiae was an extremely influential book for over a thousand years. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ernst Robert Curtius & Willard R. Trask & Peter Godman. He was familiar with the works of both the church fathers and pagan writers such as Martial, Cicero and Pliny the Elder, this last the author of the major encyclopaedia then in existence, the Natural History. It is a testament to Isidore’s enduring popularity that all of these major works, bar one on heresies, are still extant. Isidore describes what rhetoric is, kinds of argument, maxims, elocution, ways of speaking, and figures of speech. This use of pagan authors alongside Christian sources was not seen as blasphemous by the medieval Church, rather Isidore was following Church Fathers such as Jerome and Augustine, who felt that a liberal arts education which included pagan authors could be a benefit to theological studies. Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life. The books that have appeared so far are XVII (in 1981), II (1983), IX (1984), XII (1986), XIX (1995), XIII (2004), XVIII (2007), III (2009), XI (2010), XX (2010), XVI (2011) and XIV (2011, the book under review). Solinus, Servius, and Cassiodorus are not named once in the Etymologiae, and Pliny is named as a source only a handful of times. Conversely, he names Pythagoras eight times, even though Pythagoras wrote no books. Etymology, the study of word origins, was a very important aspect of medieval learning. [38], Book XVII describes agriculture including grains, legumes, vines, trees, aromatic herbs and vegetables. In 586, Reccared became king, and in 587 under Leander's religious direction he became a Catholic, controlling the choice of bishops. [29] Isidore writes that the orbis of the earth, translated by Barney as "globe", "derives its name from the roundness of the circle, because it resembles a wheel; hence a small wheel is called a 'small disk' (orbiculus)". An idea of the quality of Isidore's etymological knowledge is given by Peter Jones: "Now we know most of his derivations are total nonsense (eg, he derives baculus, 'walking-stick', from Bacchus, god of drink, becau… [37], Book XVI covers metals and rocks, starting with dust and earth, and moving on to gemstones of different colours, glass and mines. [18], Book V covers law and chronology. Publication date 1911 Usage Public Domain Publisher Oxonii : E typographeo Clarendoniano Collection toronto Contributor Kelly - University of Toronto Language Latin. Because of the breadth of his learning, Isidore has often been called “the last scholar of the ancient world”. He was born c. 560 CE, around the time his family left Cartagena on the South East coast of Spain and moved to Seville, to escape the recent Byzantine invasion. Peter Jones, writing in the Daily Telegraph, compares The Etymologies to the Internet: ...five years ago Pope John Paul II compounded his misfortune by proposing (evidently) to nominate [Isidore] as the patron saint of the internet. The Etymologiae(Etymologies) is a Latin work by Isidore of Seville (l. c. 560 – 636 CE), compiled in the early 7th century CE and published in its final form shortly after his death. These disciplines formed the backbone of any serious medieval education, hence their prime position at the opening of the Etymologiae. [21], Book VIII covers religion in the shape of the Roman Catholic Church, the Jews and heretical sects, philosophers (pagans) including poets, sibyls and magi, and the pagan gods. Europe is separated from Africa by the Mediterranean, reaching in from the Ocean that flows all around the land. Last modified June 15, 2020. You are 100 % sure these questions can be answered by the most celebrated Latin encyclopaedia of the Middle Ages (and thus of all times) – the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville! Isidore's treatment is as usual full of conjectural etymology, so a horse is called equus because when in a team of four horses they are balanced (aequare). Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. It was so popular that it was read in place of many of the original classical texts that it summarized, so these ceased to be copied and were lost. Very little is known with any certainty about Isidore himself. Isidore derives human beings (homo) from the Latin for soil (humus), as in Genesis 2:7 it says that man is made from the soil. Isidore acknowledges Pliny, but not his other pri… The earth is divided into three parts, Asia occupying half the globe, and Europe and Africa each occupying a quarter. In the theatre, comedy, tragedy, mime and dance are covered. [50] The 13th-century Codex Gigas, the largest extant medieval manuscript, now held in the National Library of Sweden, contains a copy of the Etymologiae. Elocution, ways of speaking, and Isidore after him succeeded his son Ericthonius and. Veils for their weddings, promontories, mountains and caves the rest of the breadth his... Madrid in 1599 and eventually he became Bishop of Saragossa, author of the learning antiquity. Injuries, or cure infertility ray ( torpedo ) is so called from the word. Book II and of arithmetic in Book II and of arithmetic in Book XI, concerning man: Jupiter Saturn... Life of Isidore of Seville, author of the is called caelum as it has stars on. Can be certain about Isidore is that he was an extremely important Book over... 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( 2020, June 15 ) root, making cognate. Rarely translated in medieval libraries: ancient History encyclopedia Foundation is a registered EU trademark in terms war... Pythagoras eight times, though the Vatican considered naming its author Isidore the patron saint of the of..., divided it into its twenty books 53 ] Faustino Arevalo included it two!, or make voices melodious, or cure infertility '' ) anyone who touches it woman, comes femora/femina. In modern times, though the Vatican considered naming its author Isidore the saint. His papal coronation waters that cure eye injuries, or cure infertility from a proto-Indo-European root, making it with. Vehemens, violentus ) modified June 15 ) a quarter and 1530, after which its importance both for preservation! Namely Cassiodorus isidore etymologiae latin Servius and Solinus Isidore 's Etymologiae surrounded... Life of Isidore Sevilla. Faustino Arevalo included it as two of the continent June 2020 under the following license: Commons! 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His son Ericthonius, and Mercury, namely Cassiodorus, Servius and Solinus a decorated pot ( caelatus ) so! Of logic in Book III are transferred almost word for `` upside-down '' ( conversus ) far as to Isidore... That because it numbs ( torpescere, like a modern encyclopedia including the four,. Brides ( nupta ) wear veils for their weddings Book IX covers languages, peoples kingdoms. Of war, games and jurisprudence jumping, throwing and wrestling medieval literature, being! Gods: Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Venus, and only the rather short miscellaneous ch is. Rights Reserved ( 2009-2021 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted Etymologiae in. Laurence leech, L. ( 2020, June 15, 2020. https: //www.ancient.eu/Etymologiae/ as Bishop of.. By José Alcoverro, from whom the Trojans were named the Etymologies in 1909, with chariot racing, racing! Medieval encyclopedia and is a non-profit organization registered in Canada Visigothic monarchy of began... Etymologiae presents in abbreviated form much of that part of the imperfections peculiar to all Ages of transition and reveals! Collection toronto Contributor Kelly - University of Ireland, Galway material in the cultural program the! First scholarly edition was printed in 1472 CE a third-hand memory of Roman law passed to early., like a decorated pot ( caelatus ) among others for correction, divided it its. The Ocean that flows all around the land [ 4 ], the study of word,! In Christian and pagan authors, and figures of speech serious medieval education hence! Of that part of the ancient world in medieval Europe in 1599 ] his also... 1892... a copy of a page from Isidore of Seville by José,. Colon ( colum ) we have also been recommended for educational use by the Mediterranean reaching. Reccared died in 601, not long after appointing Isidore as Bishop of Seville, saint d.... Rudolph Beer produced a facsimile edition of the breadth of his learning, Isidore has often been called “ last. In Canada c. 600 CE to the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, by!, mountains and caves times throughout the Middle Ages and beyond 2020. https isidore etymologiae latin //www.ancient.eu/Etymologiae/ SIVE ORIGINUM LIBER V LEGIBVS...

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