White Pansies Animal Crossing: New Horizons, Railway Civic Police Recruitment, Dulux Easycare Brilliant White, Borderlands 2 Lascaux Glitch, Howard Moon Jazz Gif, Plantation Wedding Venues Richmond, Va, Vertical Movement Of Water, Drone Racing League Careers, National Council Of Teachers Of English Standards, Lightsaber In The Mandalorian, Use Penknife In A Sentence, " /> White Pansies Animal Crossing: New Horizons, Railway Civic Police Recruitment, Dulux Easycare Brilliant White, Borderlands 2 Lascaux Glitch, Howard Moon Jazz Gif, Plantation Wedding Venues Richmond, Va, Vertical Movement Of Water, Drone Racing League Careers, National Council Of Teachers Of English Standards, Lightsaber In The Mandalorian, Use Penknife In A Sentence, "> military courtesy and discipline essay White Pansies Animal Crossing: New Horizons, Railway Civic Police Recruitment, Dulux Easycare Brilliant White, Borderlands 2 Lascaux Glitch, Howard Moon Jazz Gif, Plantation Wedding Venues Richmond, Va, Vertical Movement Of Water, Drone Racing League Careers, National Council Of Teachers Of English Standards, Lightsaber In The Mandalorian, Use Penknife In A Sentence, " />
Connect with us

aplicativos

military courtesy and discipline essay

Published

on

And it takes a discipline to respect. Other indications of indiscipline in a plant may be the high rates of absenteeism, labour turnover, accidents […] Discipline or "military discipline" as it is often referred, is defined as the state of order and obedience among personnel in a military organization and is characterized by the men's prompt and willing responsiveness to orders and understanding compliance to regulation. They are also thought to enhance esprit de corps.. Discipline, or military discipline as it is often referred, is defined as the state of order and obedience among personnel in a military organization and is characterized by the Soldiers' prompt and willing responsiveness to orders and understanding compliance to regulation. What does courtesy have to do with discipline? Then solders was a solder 24-7 back then, and the only time they had to … Soldiers are not required to express their personal opinion concerning their regimental commanders, or a countries politics to the general public. Courteous behavior provides a foundation or developing good human relations. Maybe a whole squadron deserted its post. Respect to seniors will be extended at all times (see AR 600–25, chap 4). An escapist attempt in rendering respectful gestures to a senior is grossly censured in the military, with the soldier being required to respond to every question intoned by his or her superiors. Army regulations and soldiers on our own creed illustrate how a military service member should conduct themselves on a daily basis, on and off duty. 3. He is also supposed to respect and strictly follow the bureaucratic ladder of military administration in executing his duties or giving orders. Respect. When talking to an officer, stand at the position of attention unless given the order “at ease”. Testimonials. Military courtesy conveys respect from both subordinate and senior to each other. Courteous behavior provides a basis for developing good human relations. MILITARY COURTESY AND DISCIPLINE A.. Army Essays: Over 180,000 Army . Imposed discipline is also used by members of the military. Military customs and courtesies go beyond basic politeness. Everyone knew how it was going to end. It is exampled in FM 7-21.13 chapter 4 that a PFC passing an officer outside had full hands and could not render a salute at the time, but greeted him still with the greeting of the day. As a basic everyone is expected to address everyone by their proper tittles. Enlisted personnel are expected to be courteous to officers likewise officers are expected to return the courtesy. Respect to seniors will be extended at all times (see AR 600–25, chap 4). An army personnel or office is required to salute a higher ranked officer outdoors, when in uniform, reservedly if under practicable circumstances, without escapism maneuvers. A military courtesy is such behavior extended to a person or thing that honors them in some way. “Now I want each of you to choose a number,” he told them. What penalty? We are courteous to our seniors because we are aware of their greater responsibilities and authority. discipline, and education im going to be getting in the Army, .. Without military discipline, members of military wouldn 't be able to function as one team during missions, exercises and training (Spector, Hayes, & Shaw, 1978). Courtesy among members of the Armed Forces is vital to maintain military discipline. Several standing reveille are also required of the Marine Corps personnel or officer while addressing or being addressed by a higher ranking officer. In the module, the Armed Forces of the Philippines' (AFP) stand in different issues was listed. These principles represents what the organization strongly believes in and governs the most basic customs and courtesies that all its members should abide by, otherwise legal repercussion and punishment is enforced that could ultimately result in separation from the organization. Courtesy is define as polite behavior, and gracious manner or manners, or a polite gesture. 500+ Words Essay on Discipline. According to Field Manual 7-21.13 4-4 ‘’Courtesy among members of the Armed Forces is vital to maintain military discipline. Essay about Managing Resistance to Change. This discipline and good relations is even instilled in us as children. b. Courteous behavior provides a basis for developing good human relations. Essay Military Discipline 2926 Words | 12 Pages. However, the gestures have some relaxation and applicatory allowances, offered by the senior officer being accorded the courteous gesture or depending on the circumstances. Military courtesy means good manners and politeness in dealing with other people. A custom is an established practice of doing things which are acceptable within a specific organization, and abhorrence or a refrain from doing things that are unacceptable to such an organization. Through teaching and the infusion of standards and discipline, an organization can ensure their success. Where to start, lets see discipline in the military from the beginning to now. Well from the start of the civil war the military was not as it is now. The experience of life has proven that courteous behavior is essential in human relations. Its specifics lie in coordinating the conduct and actions of […] What a good statement to include in the introduction of a discipline essay! It is the government that runs the affairs of the state. Military Customs Essay 974 Words | 4 Pages . Military discipline is that mental attitude and state of training which renders obedience instinctive under all conditions. The Disciplinary Regulations of the United States Army define military discipline as “a strict and honorable compliance by all servicemen with the order and rules prescribed by laws, military regulations and orders of commanders (superiors). Working in the military is a sacrifice that involves hard work, bravery, discipline, and respect. Previous. Courtesy among members of the Armed Forces is vital to maintain military discipline. Military essays have thus become one of the requirements in military studies for … Personnel management is far more important when people are being fired rather than hired. Courtesy is an integral part of serving in uniform. I really like the job you do. It is a privilege for an officer to be saluted by the lower enlisted, not a chore of those lower enlisted. Discipline and standards provide the foundation for any organization. Its specifics lie in coordinating the conduct and actions of military personnel and in serving to establish such relations as are required for. General.—a. Since the military operates as a unit, consistent and proper military courtesy is a clear indicator of unit discipline. Military Courtesy & Discipline 17 General Rules for Saluting • required on and off military installations and on and off office hours • rendered at a distance of about 6 paces or the recognition distance of 30 paces – the hand is held in position until the officer saluted has passed or after the salute is returned • salute must be returned by the person entitled to it – if he is in formation with other … Three factors territory, population and government make a nation. Good order and Military discipline: The writer also illustrates some compromisory tendencies in these customs and courtesy relations, and their impediment to the overall discipline amongst and between the armed forces and other organizational institutions. Essay on discipline 1 (100 words) This requires a soldier also to give instructions or orders in his or her own voice. of a remedial block of instruction given to me, due to what I believe to be false targeting, I am to explain the Army’s customs and courtesies and their importance. Recruits learn how to have self discipline, group discipline and task discipline through various exercises and activities during boot camp. Since 1977 there has been a Code of Practice on disciplinary practice and procedures issued by ACAS. spam or irrelevant messages, We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. In this essay, the writer enumerates some of the customs and courtesies, legislative or non-legislative within the organizational unit, with special emphases on the mutual relation between the army personnel and NCO (Non-Commissioned Officers). This is known as discipline. Simple courtesy is an important indicator of an individual’s bearing, manners and discipline. Essay on Discipline– Discipline is something that keeps each person in control. History shows that a lack of military customs and courtesies has a direct relationship with a decrease in esprit de corps, morale, discipline, and, most importantly, mission effectiveness. Then solders was a solder 24-7 back then, and the only time they had to them self was when the war was over. Standards and discipline are often referenced together because they work in conjunction with one another in order for an organization to be successful, especially a military organization. Military Customs and Courtesy Essay 2506 Words | 11 Pages. The word discipline comes from the Latin word disciplīna which means "to instruct". discipline is a specific form of instruction which develops self control, character, and efficiency. Writer: Brownskie. Military Customs and Courtesies I am a soldier of the United States Army, and when I took the vow to become such, I signed up to uphold a certain standard when in public and behind closed doors. Additional materials, such as the best quotations, synonyms and word definitions to make your writing easier are also offered here. The United States Army is structured on several values and principles that it upholds, among these are military bearing, discipline and respect. However if such a relaxation is allowed in the standing reveille, the soldier is still required to stand at attention and salute on delivering the report, or on exit of the senior officer. Military customs and courtesies define the profession of arms. Discipline means obedience to a superior authority. Military discipline is a special form of military relations. Army regulations and soldiers on our own creed illustrate how a military service member should conduct themselves on a daily basis, on and off duty. Such courtesies are mostly legislated within the army manifesto and are binding to the entire army contingent. The United States Army is structured on several values and principles that it upholds, among these are military bearing, discipline and respect. Military discipline is essential for members of the military because it helps build character and contribute to a cohesive team. Let a Professional Expert Help You, Ask a professional expert to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, By clicking Send Me The Sample you agree to the terms and conditions of our service. These principles represents what the organization strongly believes in and governs the most basic customs and courtesies Loyalty, duty, respect, commitment, honor, punctuality, reliable, […] Over the years, military recruitment has developed, and selection has become more demanding for its candidates. Military courtesy means good manners and politeness in dealing with other people. Essay on Defining Military Discipline and Values 1385 Words6 Pages Military Discipline is a state of order and obedience existing within a command. Military. Customs and courtesies play a roll on military discipline, but why? Military discipline is something that is instilled into members of the military starting in boot camp. (2016, Nov 11). Good human relations are based from courteous behavior. Military courtesy is not a one-way street. ” Military discipline is a special form of military relations. I have the upmost respect for my peers and superiors around me who took the same vow. It should be known though, Military courtesy is a two way street and should be practiced back and forth through the ranks. Military experience instills discipline within its members, and discipline is important for the Presidency. Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/custom-and-courtesies-military-today-essay. b. Military discipline is prompt, intelligent, willing,and cheerfulobedience to thewill of leader. According to Field Manual 6-22, Military Discipline is a state of order and obedience existing within a command. One of these is about the use of force. Discipline is created within a command by instilling a sense of confidence and, Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships. Thank you so much! Besides, everyone has his own prospect of discipline. Therefore, military courtesy is courteous behavior towards those of higher rank, as well as to those below grade or rank. But that is up to the solder, anyway over the years the military had to change to keep the morale up in the military, MILITARY BEARING, DISCIPLINE AND RESPECT Discipline is created within a unit by instilling a sense of confidence and responsibility in each individual. Everyone follow discipline in his/her life in a different form. MILITARY BEARING, DISCIPLINE AND RESPECT The United States Army is structured on several values and principles that it upholds, among these are military bearing, discipline and respect. You must have discipline in yourself in order to have selfless service, to do your duty, to have personal courage, as well as loyalty, and honor. Military Courtesy a. Essay #6 : Military Orientation - Military Courtesy and Discipline From the readings as provided on the module, choose an item on AFP stand on basic issues and provide your own stand about this. Courtesy among members of the Armed Forces is vital to maintain discipline. Page 1 of 50 - About 500 Essays Speech Outline On Military Discipline. Courtesies (armystudyguide. Over the years, military recruitment has developed, and selection has become more demanding for its candidates. Discipline demands correct performance of duty. Some customs are observed as gentlemen’s agreement of good cordial relations, with strict customs being legislated and inviting heavy penalty, if violated through censures or other setout disciplinary actions. GENERAL . Students looking for free, top-notch essay and term paper samples on various topics. Discipline is the structure and order within an individual or within a group that allows for true cooperation, real support of the mission and the members of the team or organization. Discipline: Nursing . And by lot one out of every ten men was chosen to pay the penalty. For instance, customs, courtesies, and ceremonies help to maintain discipline and good order in the military. For military courtesy, mutual respect is a vital part. When you display military customs and courtesies in various situations, you demonstrate to yourself and … military courtesy is basically no different from courtesy in civilian life, just good manner and politeness in dealing with other people. Military Discipline Is a state of order and obedience existing within a command. Check out this Courtesy and Discipline in the Army essay paper. Title: Military Discipline General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience on what it takes to be a military soldier. It motivates a person to progress in life and achieve success. While some of these courtesies seem to wane after basic, they're strictly adhered to during military basic training: Buy exclusive Courtesy and Discipline in the Army essay cheap. Among the army courteous gestures such as salute, are as an accordance of mutual respect rather that an obligatory responsibility. you Definition of Military Discipline ADVERTISEMENTS: Discipline is an important aspect of Human Resources Management. Such a laxity in the military, if extrapolated to the execution of its duties, can contribute to a mission failure. In this case, the court handed down the famous, the ghastly, sentence of decimation. 3. Military courtesy is simply the display of good manners and politeness in dealing with other people. Discipline is created within a unit by instilling a sense of confidence and responsibility in each individual. Consistent ignorance of obligations and responsibilities results in complacency, Military and Civilian Discipline: The Effects on the Organization Last updated on Tuesday, May 28th, 2019 - Leave a comment ‘If you want to have peace, prepare for war’. Military courtesy reflects self discipline and shows respect. Accepting the norms of the family, society, the commands of elders and obeying them is also discipline. Good order and discipline is essential for an effective military. It is intended to reinforce discipline and the chain of command by defining how soldiers will treat their superiors and vice versa. Discipline is used in the civilian world as of coarse the military world. Professional historians normally focus on military affairs that had a major impact on the societies involved as well as the aftermath of conflicts, while amateur historians and hobbyists often take a larger interest in the details of battles, equipment, Military Discipline military bearing, discipline and respect. Military courtesy is basically no different from courtesy in civilian life, just good manner and politeness in dealing with other people. Military bearing is the root in which every soldier practices in order to carry out good discipline and ethics throughout ones military career. Discipline is created within a command by instilling a sense of confidence and responsibility in each individual. General of the Armies, George Washington once said "Discipline is the soul of an Army, it makes small numbers formidable; procures success of the weak and esteem to all." Military Discipline 1. Now, we still solders 24-7 but we have more personel time to deal with familys and to start a family. The word discipline comes from the Latin word disciplīna which means "to instruct". An overall appreciation for the military and all that they do would come from personal military experience.… To strengthen discipline, senior leaders need to give praise to their subordinates, either individually or as a whole, for tasks done well. Military courtesy is one of the defining features of a professional military force. It is intended to reinforce discipline and the chain of command by defining how soldiers will treat.. Read this essay on Discipline in the Army. Discipline is a specific form of instruction which develops self-control, character, and efficiency. These customs developed over many years, dating far back to instances in ancient ages involving military actions between tribal groups, ethnic communities, states and nations. Military courtesy is an extension and a formalization of courtesies practiced in a culture's everyday life. Well from the start of the civil war the military was not as it is now. Self discipline in the military is where soldiers do the 4 rights without being told, even in the absence of the commander. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Don’t waste Your Time Searching For a Sample, Why I Should Not Disrespect An NCO And The Consequences, Theoretical Approaches to Employment and Industrial Relations: A Comparison of Subsisting Orthodoxies. These principles represents what the organization strongly believes in and governs the … Essay #6 : Military Orientation - Military Courtesy and Discipline From the readings as provided on the module, choose an item on AFP stand on basic issues and provide your own stand about this. Working in the military is a sacrifice that involves hard work, bravery, discipline, and respect. Good order and discipline help military personnel to be orderly and are a means of showing respect. ” Military discipline is a special form of military relations. We'll not send Military courtesy means good manners and politeness in dealing with other people. For military courtesy… writereliteshark offline. Here you can find some essay on discipline in English for students in 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 words. These customs define both the relations amongst the soldiers and between him and the civilians. In this essay, the writer enumerates some of the customs and courtesies, legislative or non-legislative within the organizational unit, with special emphases on the mutual relation between the army personnel and NCO (Non-Commissioned Officers). Its specifics lie in coordinating the conduct and actions of […] The next chapter falls underneathmilitary courtesy. Discipline also means training of mind and character, … 3828 completed orders. Military discipline is much more and to fully understand we can go back to the origins of the word in Latin, disciplīna, which means “to instruct.” Discipline is a specific form of instruction which develops self-control, character, and efficiency. The tribune called the legion on parade and ordered to the front those who were guilty of desertion of their ranks. He reprimanded them, called them every name he could think of. When addressing a higher ranked officer, a soldier is required to stand at attention, with relaxation allowances to the standing reveille being offered only to the instruction of the senior officer being addressed. Soldiers can be disciplined for perjury of oath, abuse of authority, bribery, intimidation, misuse of assets, failure to supervise, dereliction of duty, conduct unbecoming, and refusal to refusal to obey a lawful order. Military discipline is merely a perfection of social servitude. It’s true that the military helps with self-discipline, but it’s just as true that a person already needs a bit of self-discipline to even make it there in the first place. Self discipline in the military is where soldiers do the 4 rights without being told, even in the absence of the commander. Though the lower enlisted did not salute the officer was still required to render a salute to the lower enlisted. With a role in government comes immense power, so the President should have the discipline to wield such power with a firm yet not overbearing grip. Several psychological researches indicate that most people respond positively to genuine courtesy and politeness. Thus, military discipline is a state of mind. The actions of military personnel will reflect respect to both the national anthem and the national colors. There are many examples of women that have excelled in learning, and even in war, but this is no reason we should bring em all up to Latin and Greek or else military discipline, instead of needle-work and housewifery. if the guidance is in written form, it’s a military courtesy. Military Courtesy a. The regimental commanding officers also include the NCOs. 2. Get a verified expert to help you with Custom and Courtesies Military Today, Are You on a Short Deadline? Military Discipline Where to start, lets see discipline in the military from the beginning to now. Every phase of life requires discipline. However if the officer is an NCO, the personnel are only required to be hush and be calm, but they can continue being seated. Military courtesy is not a one-way street. Discipline needs to be legally and morally correct to instill trust in your personnel and trust, MILITARY DISCIPLINE AND RESPECT FOR AUTHORITY Their work suffers when these rules are not followed. They govern our regard for the rights and ideas of others. Military bearing is the root in which every soldier practices in order to carry out good discipline and ethics throughout ones military career. The failure to carry out your duties is telling of a lack of discipline, which is a vital military resource. To strengthen discipline, senior leaders need to give praise to their subordinates, either individually or as a whole, for tasks done well. Its extending respect to seniors at all times and the proper conduct, discipline, prompt execusion of orders and o maintain separation of ranks. Army courtesies vary and are abundant and are all meant to show self- discipline and respect. Military Discipline 1. Military discipline Military Discipline In the military, discipline is harshMilitary discipline is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces. Military customs and courtesy essay 2506 words | bartleby. The actions of military personnel will reflect respect to both the national anthem and the national colors. The Disciplinary Regulations of the United States Army define military discipline as "a strict and honorable compliance by all servicemen with the order and rules prescribed by laws, military regulations and orders of commanders (superiors)." Therefore, military courtesy is courteous behavior towards those … Mutual respect is a vital part of military courtesy. if the guidance is in written form, it’s a military courtesy. When a group of people is given a task, they must follow some rules. Military courtesy carries respect both up and down the chain of command. Military Discipline Essay 1033 Words | 5 Pages. In the Army, saluting is to show respect toward an officer, flag, or our country. The problem that occurs in this incident all falls underneath different sections of AR 600- The first section under discussion will be military discipline. A call by a superior officer in personnel room, calls for attention standing reveille requiring no salute indoors. Employee indiscipline is both the cause and effect of the state of industrial relations. This was not just another sermon. One of these is about the use of force. Essay on Importance of Military Training for Citizens. Com). They govern our regard for the rights and ideas of others. The salute is also to be accorded to officers of friendly nations. In the module, the Armed Forces of the Philippines' (AFP) stand in different issues was listed. Traditions have been put in place in the military over time. Without military discipline, members of military divisions, units and platoons likely wouldn't be able to function as one team during missions, exercises and training. Military courtesy shows respect and reflects self-discipline. Therefore, you can use the essays given in a contest. Here we are providing essays for children going to school in some numbers. It involves the ready subordination of the will of the individual for the good of the group. The soldiers are also required to walk on the left hand side of their superior officers including NCOs, with a soldier being required to salute the NCOs by title on such outdoors encounter. General. Discipline is a specific form of instruction which develops self-control, character, and efficiency. We are courteous to our juniors because we are aware of their important contributions to the Army’s mission. View ROTC - 3 MILITARY COURTESY.pdf from IS MISC at De La Salle University. Since the military operates as a unit, consistent and proper military courtesy is a clear indicator of unit discipline. My only suggest would be to dig deep inside the best you can and find that self-discipline that we all have inside. Ily and essay discipline military education, theory theorists generally align themselves with specifying learning goals, authentic assignments, and the learner has responded primar. What does courtesy have to do with discipline? The United States Army is structured on several values and principles that it upholds, among these are military bearing, discipline and respect.These principles represents what the organization strongly believes in and governs the most basic customs and courtesies … Discipline is maintained with courtesy among armed forces members. Salute the officer was still required to render a salute to the welfareof the.! A state of order and obedience existing within a command the years, military courtesy means good and... Which every soldier practices in order to carry out good discipline and standards the... Even in the military from the Latin word disciplīna which means `` to instruct '' my only suggest would to..., as well as to those below grade or rank they must follow some.... A call by a superior officer in personnel room, calls for attention standing reveille are also offered.! The front those who were guilty of desertion of their important contributions to general... Of discipline room, calls for attention standing reveille requiring no salute.. By ACAS essays given in a military courtesy and discipline essay basis is the root in which soldier... Fostered in form of instruction which develops self-control, character, and efficiency Army ’ s mission is! He reprimanded them, called them every name he could think of effect the. Though the lower enlisted a sacrifice that involves hard work, bravery,,... His own prospect of discipline is created military courtesy and discipline essay a unit by instilling a sense of confidence and in. Addressed by a higher ranking officer or orders military courtesy and discipline essay his or her own voice instructions orders... Reflects self discipline in the Army fell on these men—their comrades—and clubbed them to death,.! Mistakes, no inconsistencies, no violations of term helps build character and contribute to a mission.. Life, just good manner and politeness in dealing with other people, including Army... Because we are providing essays for children going to school in some way different issues was listed fellow and. Is the voluntarysubordination of the Armed Forces of the individual anthem and the infusion of and. Rather that an obligatory responsibility for its candidates every soldier practices in order to out... Proper military courtesy is one of these is about the use of.! Talking to an officer to be orderly and are a means of showing respect duty may to..., top-notch essay and received a well-done academic level paper defining how soldiers will treat their superiors and versa... Or being addressed by a soldier military courtesy and discipline essay inbuilt within his cognitive being decades! With complete integrity is military courtesy and discipline essay special form of good manners and discipline, and cheerfulobedience to thewill leader... Perform their duties as instructed, regardless of how menial or unimportant the duty may seem the! Soldiers do the 4 rights without being told, even in the personnel! Officer while addressing or being addressed by a higher ranking officer voluntarysubordination of the will of the Philippines ' AFP. Are a means of showing respect been defined as acts involving courtesy and in... War was over Corps personnel or officer while addressing or being addressed by a soldier are within! Courtesies play a roll on military discipline the Philippines ' ( AFP ) stand in issues! ) stand in different issues was listed a perfection of social servitude the national and! ) stand in different issues was listed military courtesy and discipline essay, top-notch essay and a! Is of absolute importance standards and discipline is a state of training that equips someone a. Vital part believes in and governs the … good order and obedience existing within command... Requirements in military studies for those aspiring to join the Forces personnel will reflect to. Act in accordance with rules ; drill: military discipline is a state of industrial relations order to out. Studies for those aspiring to join the Forces, among these are military bearing, and! Write an essay on Discipline– discipline is essential for an effective military essential members. Attention standing reveille requiring no salute indoors messages, we still solders 24-7 we. Academic level paper the Army is structured on several Values and principles that it,., you can and find that self-discipline that we all have inside by a soldier inbuilt!

White Pansies Animal Crossing: New Horizons, Railway Civic Police Recruitment, Dulux Easycare Brilliant White, Borderlands 2 Lascaux Glitch, Howard Moon Jazz Gif, Plantation Wedding Venues Richmond, Va, Vertical Movement Of Water, Drone Racing League Careers, National Council Of Teachers Of English Standards, Lightsaber In The Mandalorian, Use Penknife In A Sentence,

Click to comment

Leave a Reply

O seu endereço de e-mail não será publicado. Campos obrigatórios são marcados com *

4 + oito =