7.12). , The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Due to the removal of the Roman sculpture on the inside, however, we cannot be sure exactly which gods the temple was dedicated to. It was dedicated to "all gods" as a gesture embracing the religious syncretism in the increasingly multicultural Roman Empire, with subjects worshipping gods from many cultures and traditions. This idea is supported by the recent discovery of an ancient set of full scale plans and templates for the portico of the Pantheon cut into the limestone paving next to the Mausoleum of Augustus, only 600 meters to the north. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. However, the concept of a temple dedicated to all the gods is highly unusual and thus questionable. The above-mentioned relationship between the circle and the square, which underlies the basic geometry of the entire building, is also mirrored by the floor decorations that still maintain the original design (although much of the marble has either been replaced or relaid). A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. On coins, the same words, "M. Agrippa L.f cos. tertium", were the ones used to refer to him after his death; consul tertium serving as "a sort of posthumous cognomen ex virtute, a remembrance of the fact that, of all the men of his generation apart from Augustus himself, he was the only one to hold the consulship thrice. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. The choir was added in 1840, and was designed by Luigi Poletti. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. It is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome. It contains a pair of staircases that give access to the roof and its external marble walls are decorated by fluted pilasters and a series of three-foot-tall bas relief friezes of candelabra, ribbons and festoons, with various utensils used in religious ceremonies. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. , Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it.  Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. We know that Hadrian was really close to greek culture and so it makes sense he wanted a temple to honor pagan divinities.  This reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the oculus.. The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. The first Pantheon was built during the years 27-25 BC by Marcus Agrippa. , No tensile test results are available on the concrete used in the Pantheon; however, Cowan discussed tests on ancient concrete from Roman ruins in Libya, which gave a compressive strength of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. From the second cornice onwards: cement predominantly containing crushed and broken bricks. Look how rich the surface is. There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular. It burned in the great fire of 80 AD, was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, but was struck by lightning and burned again in 110 AD. The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). The Pantheon has represented the greatest expression of the glory of Rome for more than two thousand years. After crossing Via del Corso take the first turning on the left (Via del Leoncino) which then becomes Via di Campo Marzio. Mary and the Martyrs,” commonly referred to as “Santa Maria Rotonda.” The reason it has been preserved so well is because of this conversion and its continuous use as a result of this. Built by Agrippa between 25 and 27 BC the Pantheon was a temple dedicated to the twelve Gods and to the living Sovran. , The building was originally approached by a flight of steps. In fact, it has been in continuous use since it was first built, which is probably one of the reasons it is so intact. Much of the first half of the book is dedicated to presenting the construction of the current Pantheon and its probable methods, materials, labor requirements, and architectural aspects. The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprè. Duration: 3 hours | Linguages: English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Duration: 35 minutes | Languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Selection of the best hotels and apartments near the Pantheon, in the heart of Rome. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. The Pope decided to use the Pantheon as a church, and hundreds of years of constant maintenance and use have allowed it to remain in very good condition. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. The floor of the porch is made of white Pentelic marble and is decorated with a simple geometric pattern of coloured marble circles and squares. Pantheon A circular temple in Rome, completed around ad 125 and dedicated to all the gods. It is an early example of Neoclassicism, with a facade modelled after the Pantheon in Rome surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante’s “Tempietto”. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. The Pantheon Paris (Latin Pantheon, from Greek Pantheon, meaning “Every God”) is one of the popular Paris tourist attractions. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The interior of the rotunda is a cylinder, measuring 43.44 meters in diameter (corresponding to 150 Roman feet). However, the Pantheon survived because it was given as a gift to Pope Boniface VIII of the Catholic Church. , Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. The main building (known as the “rotonda”) with a circular ground plan and a thick windowless wall in which there are 7 large niches at ground level (8 if one includes the entrance). It was about the earthly sphere meeting the heavenly sphere. No obvious set plan Free-standing columns at the front then semi-engaged columns in the porch Unique with the dome and an oculus. , The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. Pantheon means "all gods," and though it's commonly thought the structure was a site of worship dedicated to Roman deities, its original purpose is … The story of the Pantheon is inseparably tied to the Eternal City. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. Oculus of the Pantheon. Due to the periodic flooding of the Tiber in this area, as well as deposits of rubbish caused by human habitation and the periodic demolition or collapse of buildings, the ground level around the Pantheon, as well as around most other ancient Roman buildings and monuments, steadily rose over the centuries. which burnt to the ground in 80 A.D. Click again to see term 1/20 The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. In the third chapel is a 15th-century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. It was at the centre of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a centre of religious scholarship in the Middle Ages. Normally, temples were dedicated to one or two gods or, rarely, three gods. Plan of the building. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. In the Chapel of the Crucifixion, the Roman brick wall is visible in the niches. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. A projecting portico or porch, faced by a façade consisting of 8 columns at the front and two at the sides. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). In the columns of the other alcoves this stone alternates with ivory-coloured and purple-veined pavonazetto from Turkey. Adytons (shrines recessed into the wall) and coffers (sunken panels) cleverly reduce the weight of the dome, as did a lightweight cement made of pumice used in the upper levels.  It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. In addition if we visualize a square fitting exactly into the cylinder of the rotunda, with an identical square standing immediately next to it towards the north, this second square would extend to the corner columns of the portico (with its sides exactly corresponding to the centres of the outer columns) and its height would be the same as that of the transitional block (as well as of the top of the pediment as originally planned). The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) so named because she rests one foot on a boulder. The central point of the Pantheon is far above visitors’ heads: the great eye, … While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other. A temple dedicated to all gods. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD.  Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium."  It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Carracci. The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi, and many others. The only local Italian stone in the original decorations of the Pantheon is the fine white marble from Carrara in Tuscany, which was used for the Corinthian capitals and the small pediments of the aedicules. " Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose..  Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. RESTITVERVNT). Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=998285383, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 17:48. This wall is surmounted by a hemispherical dome with a large central hole (the “oculus”). Four of the aedicules have triangular pediments featuring paler marbles while the other four have curved pediments and deeper colours. It was perhaps restored by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus on the orders of Trajan, but then demolished and completely rebuilt by Hadrian. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the year 476, the old Roman religion died off. They would have corresponded to the second pediment visible on the front of the intermediate block. The Pantheon of Rome is the best-preserved major edifice of ancient Rome and one of the most significant buildings in architectural history. This engineering tour de force has exerted an enormous influence on the history of Western architecture as it seems to have been deliberately designed to surprise the visitor, due to its interior that vastly surpasses the exterior in splendour.  The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. DR. STEVEN ZUCKER: And also in some way about human perception. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. It is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome.. , Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". , Among the most notable versions are the church of Santa Maria Assunta (1664) in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which followed his work restoring the Roman original, Belle Isle House (1774) in England and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–1826). Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. While more recent archaeological diggings have suggested that Agrippa's building might have had a circular form with a triangular porch, and it might have also faced north, much like the later rebuildings, Ziolkowski complains that their conclusions were based entirely on surmise; according to him, they did not find any new datable material, yet they attributed everything they found to the Agrippan phase, failing to account for the fact that Domitian, known for his enthusiasm for building and known to have restored the Pantheon after 80 AD, might well have been responsible for everything they found. Competition, and 60 tonnes in weight embedded in the Pantheon ( street. 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